A 43-year-old man, employed in food-industry, presents (in a primary care unit) with complaints of diffuse abdominal pain, involuntary loss of 7kg in 6 weeks (11% of his weight) and black stool. The abdominal pain has an intensity of 7 in 10 (and began six weeks earlier), initially being restricted to the epigastric region and worsening after meals; with time became more constant and diffuse. Besides the black stool, he also describes intermittent episodes of mucous diarrhoea associated with tenesmus. Denies fever, night-sweats, chest pain, cough, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, dysuria, oral ulcerations or rashes. Simultaneously, he also complains about a recent cervical pain that sometimes wakes him up at night, and morning stiffness (around 1 hour). He has a personal history of insulin treated/dependent Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and chronic low back pain (of approximately 20 years). Refers, as well, a single episode of auto-limited acute anterior uveitis three years ago.
His current medication consists of isophane insulin 10U – 2x/day metformin 500mg 2x/day and ibuprofen 400mg, in SOS.
In what concerns his social history, this man is a former smoker (30 packs-year), but quitted 5 years ago. He denies alcohol or illicit drugs intake. He lives with his dog (vaccinated) in an urban area and denies recent visits to the countryside, although he travelled to Brazil 10 months ago (denying any relevant epidemiologic history since then). His family history is irrelevant.
During his physical examination, his blood pressure was 135/80mmHg and his heart rate was 87bpm with no signs of haemodynamic instability. In his chest exam, no abnormalities were found neither in heart nor lung examination. In his abdomen, there was a diffuse tenderness, especially in the left flanks. No peritoneal signs. No palpable masses or organomegalies. He had also a limitation of chest expansion (1cm) and anterior lumbar flexion (1,5cm – Shober test) with no other relevant findings.
- Reactive arthritis due to a primary acute uveitis;
- Bone metastasis due to a primary GI neoplasm;
- Polymyalgia rheumatica;
- Vasculitis with lung, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal manifestations.
You asked for a blood analysis, that gave you the following results:
- Blood-cells count: Hb: 11g/dl (normocytic normochromic anaemia); WCC: 7.400/L with 56% Polymorphonuclear cells (normal range); Platelets: 300.000/L (normal range);
- C-reactive protein: 93mg/L; ESR: 57mm/h (both elevated);
- Creatinin:0.87mg/dL (0.50; 1.00); Urea: 30mg/dL (20-40); AST: 40 U/L (<32); ALT: 30 U/L (<33); GGT: 37U/L (6-42).
- Stool sample’s culture (repeated 2 times) and parasitological exams where negative;
- To strengthen these findings, it was also required the following immunologic tests: ATA IgA – (anti-transglutaminase antibodies IgA); ASCA – (anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies); p-ANCA + (perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies); HLA-B27 + (Human leucocyte antigen B27).
- A malabsorption syndrome. Ask for an immunologic panel in order to detect causes such as pancreatic insufficiency or celiac disease.
- A GI tract infection/haemorrhagic gastroenteritis causing anaemia and elevated inflammatory patterns;
- Anaemia due to chronic inflammation and blood loss (early iron-deficiency pattern). Perform a colonoscopy.
- Acute GI viral infection due to a virus with negative cultures. Perform a stool polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
- An irritable bowel syndrome in a patient with a chronic mechanical back pain.
You decide to request pelvic and spinal x rays. Below are the actual findings:
- Radiographic sacroileitis and syndesmophytes all along the vertebrae;
- Multiple disc hernias and pelvic fractures;
- Multiple metastases along the vertebrae and iliac bone;
- Lumbar osteophytes with pelvic fracture;
- Diffuse osteomyelitis.
You decide to further investigate the cause of the black stools and anaemia.
- Faecal occult blood testing (FOBT)
- Colonoscopy (whole colon);
- Barium enema;
- Capsule endoscopy;
- Virtual colonoscopy with CT scanning.
- Chest X-ray examination;
- Exclude infections;
- Exclude congestive heart failure (NYHA class III/IV and ejection fraction ≤50%);
- Exclude inflammatory bowel disease;
- Serology for HIV, HBV and HVC (for some countries only if risk factors).